Highlighted areas will be covered later in the course or are within the EMT-B's
scope of knowledge but is usually not tested.
A&P 1 (Sessions: Terms to Heart)
When describing anatomical terms the patient is always
referred to being in the position, which means standing erect, arms to the side and
facing out. The front surface of the body is termed
plane. The back of the body is termed . The line that separates the body into left and right is the
. The line dissects the collar bone. A plane that separated the body
into anterior and posterior is the line. If the lateral plane is more anterior it is termed
axillary. If the lateral plane is more posterior it is termed
axillary. Midclavicular is on the anterior side but its counterpart
on the posterior side is termed . A line that cuts across the body from left to right is termed
When using direction terms is away from the midline. Adduction is an example of
movement. Superior or toward the head/top is also referred to as
. Inferior or toward the bottom is also referred to as
. When compared to the elbow the wrist is
. When compared to the elbow the shoulder is
. The surface of the hand/palm is termed . The sole of the foot is termed . When “looking up at the sky” the neck/head is
. When “looking down at your feet” the neck is
When a person is lying on their back they are in a
position. When they are lying on their anterior surface they are in
a position. When you raise the body as a unit at the feet it is the
position. When you only raise the feet 8 to 10 inches it is the
position. When you flex your hips at 45 degree angle it is the
position. When you raise the head only 15 to 30 degrees it is the
position. When you are prone with one hip flexed it is the
We have two divisions of the skeletal system; they are
and . We have five traditional body cavities which are:
, , , , and .
We have three types of muscle tissues. Involuntary is
also referred to as muscle. Examples of involuntary muscle are the
(2 words) and system. Striated muscle can also be termed
muscle and is responsible for movement. muscle is only found in the heart and has the ability to create its
own electrical impulse know as .
A neuron consists
of three parts; (2 words), , and . The space between two nerves is the . Some nerves have a protective cover termed a
sheath. are responsible in receiving impulses into the cell body. The
distributes and released neurotransmitters from the cell.
The organ systems
are: , , , , , , , , , , and .
The system is the largest system in the body and regulates body
; defense against ; and prevents . We have two layers of skin (not counting the fat layer) which are
the and . The contains hair, nails, glands, veins, arteries (the good stuff).
We have (#) types of skin glands. glands help control body temperature.
glands are located on the armpits and groin.
glands are in the ear and make ear wax.
glands produce milk. glands lubricate the hair.
The skeletal system has two divisions; and bones. The human body has on average (#) bones.
vertebral bone consists of;
with goes posterior to the vertebral body.
with goes in a 45 degree lateral angle from the vertebral body.
vertebral bone supports most of the body weight.
allows the nerves to leave the spine laterally.
The axis of the
spine is C (#). The atlas of the spine is C (#). C2 has a notch (den) which is termed the
We have 12 vertebral bones
We have 5 vertebral bones
We have 4 vertebral bones
We have 7 vertebral bones
We have 5 vertebral bones
The first (#) pairs of ribs are termed ribs
The last (#) pairs of ribs are termed ribs
The last two pairs of ribs are termed
The upper extremity bones are the:
, , , , , , , and .
The proximal part of the femur has the head and the
lesser and greater .
In the lower leg (Shin) we have the
bone which supports most of the weight. The
bone is more posterior and . The foot contains the bone which is the heel region along with
(group of bones), (group of bones). The is the ankle bone which articulates the body to the foot.
Three major classifications of
joints: , , and .
joints allow little or no movement (skull sutures, between radius
and ulna, teeth socket)
joints will allow a little motion. (rib cage cartilage)
joints have a sac are the most common joint in the human body
synovial joint is the thumb.
synovial joint is the elbow.
synovial joint is the hip.
synovial joint is the neck and allows for diagonal movement.
synovial joint is the spine
synovial joint is the head of the radius and allows supination and
Stimulating the biceps will result in movement
Stimulating the triceps will result in movement
When you dislocate a shoulder and are holding the arm to the body it is a
When you dislocate a shoulder and hold the arm away from the body it is a
Moving your arms in large circles is
Turning your palm face down is termed movement.
Turning your palm face up is termed movement.
In class we wanted to focus on just a few muscles. This section is
dedicated to them.
Start at the ear and goes to the manubrium.
Upper arm and wraps around the shoulder.
Lateral upper torso which wraps just below the armpits to the
Lateral and transverse to the belly button. Around the region of
the love handles.
Mid-abdominal muscle. I used to have a 6 pack.
Under the breast tissue.
The nervous system has two main divisions – the
which include the brain, brain stem, and spine. The other division
is the nervous system which
consists of the (3 words) which helps maintain homeostasis, Somatic which is
motor nerves, and the which sends impulses to the brain.
The brain stem
contains the , , and . The is responsible to maintain vital signs. The
help control breathing and sleeping state. The
is the smallest region of the brain stem. The
contains the thalamus and . The influences mood and strong emotion. The
is active sexual activity, emotion, and regulation. The is considered the to the cerebrum. is the largest portion of the brain and is divided into left and
Lobes of brains:
lobe is associated with motor and higher
lobe is the primary sensory lobe.
lobe is vision
lobe is hearing
The fluid of blood is . The formed elements of blood are , , and .
The ovaries produce and hormones. The testes produce hormone. The
promotes development of immune system cells. The
B cells produce insulin.
is the term given to the sac around the heart. Valves within
the heart located between the atria and ventricle are termed
valves. These valves are the on the right and the on the left. The valves
leaving the ventricles are valves. These valves are the on the left and on the right. The heart has
two main branches of the coronary arteries. The right coronary artery supplies
blood to the (2 words) and (2 words). The left coronary artery supply blood to the
, , and . The left coronary artery also has a branch called the
which supplies blood to the posterior heart.
The heart is made
up of two types of cells. The ones that conduct impulses are
cells and the cells that provide movement are termed
cells. The conduction system starts with the
node then moves throughout the atrium’s called the
paths and the paths. The base of the AV node is the of His. From there we go to the left and right
branches and ends at the fibers.
refers to the chest area.
Peripheral Circulation: Blood vessels are an example of
muscle. are the most elastic of all vessels and handle the greatest pressure
exerted from the heart. As we trace a drop of blood through the 5 common
vessel types we start with the arteries, then the , to the which are under a neutral pressure, then to the
and finally to the veins. have valves in them to prevent back flow. As a general rule all
flow away the heart and all return blood to the heart. Also as a general rule all
carry blood and all carry deoxygenated blood. The exceptions to these rules are the
arteries and veins. The
coronary arteries receive their blood flow during the
phase of contraction.
Respiratory System: is a basic element needed for normal cell metabolism.
(2 words) is a major waste product of this process. The
respiratory system is divided into the and airway. The opening is the dividing point of the upper and lower airways. We
have three pharynx; , , and . The is responsible to , and air. The nasopharynx contain
cartilage protrusions called which help more air while traveling through the nose. The
left and right nares are separated by the nasal . The
tube runs from the nose to the ear. The
is located behind the mouth. The is the tissue which hangs down from the roof of the mouth. The
is where you gurgle mouthwash.
The is where speech/sound production is located. The only complete
cartilage ring of the larynx is the cartilage. The membrane is located just above the cricoid cartilage and is where a
needle cricothyroidostemy is done. The glottic opening contains the white
vocal cords referred to as
When tracing a drop of air from the larynx it will travel
next to the which has “C” shaped cartilage rings. In the lungs we have a total
of (#) lobes on the left and (#) lobes on the right. The are the smallest component of the respiratory system.
These sacs contain a liquid called
which lubricates the tissue. The lungs are surrounded by
tissue membrane and the thoracic cavity is coated with
tissue membrane. The two tissues form the
The system provides the body with water, electrolyte and
nutrients. The stomach has two sphincters.
The proximal sphincter is termed
and the distal sphincter is termed . The stomach
contains acid which is stimulated to be released into the stomach by gastrin.
The main function of the small intestine is absorption of
and electrolytes (the good stuff).
The liver produces which emulsifies fat. The bladder holds a reserve of bile for digestion.
The large intestine is also termed the
. The main purpose of the large intestine is to synthesize vitamin K
and absorb . From the cecum we travel to the colon to the hepatic flexure then the colon to the spleenic flexure to the colon to the “S” shape colon to the rectum and anus. The anus has
(#) sphincters; internal
sphincter is and the external sphincter is .
The urinary system is the main system in the body that
regulates . The
kidney is slightly lower than the other side. The
, , and make up the remaining parts to the urinary system.
Male reproduction: The testes produce sperm and
. The (2 words) joins the epididymis and continues to the prostate where
the tube is termed the urethra. The body of the penis is termed the
and the tip is the . The sac that holds the testicles is the
Female reproduction starts with the
majora and minora. The is anterior to the urethra. The opening to the vagina is
to the urethra. The vagina is termed the
canal. The head of the vagina is the . The is the womb. The tubes extend to the ovaries.
The tissue region between the anus and vagina is the
The white part of the eye is termed
and the clear part over the pupil is the
. The color (brown or blue most common) is the
. The black hole is the . The anterior chamber of the eye contains
humor. The posterior chamber contains a jelly like fluid called
humor is always being produced. The
lines the posterior chamber of the eye.
presents when pressure build up takes place in the eye. Myopia
means sided and means sided. The duct connect the eye and nose together. The
gland produces tears. The outer part of the eye and under the eye
lids are covered with . The retina has rods and
. see color and rods see black and white.
The ear is divided into (#) regions. Outer, middle and inner ear. The
(2 words) separated the outer (ear canal) and middle ear.
The smallest bones in the body are the
bones which are the; , , and . These bones relay
vibrations from the ear drum to the inner ear. The superior ear lobe is
termed the . The inferior ear lobe is termed the . The is responsible for deciphering sounds. The 3
canals are responsible for equilibrium.
The front four
teeth (4 upper and 4 lower) are called central and lateral
. The are called the eye/fang teeth. The back teeth are termed