Highlighted areas will be covered later in the course or are within the EMT-B's scope of knowledge but is usually not tested.

Student Name:    Date:      E-mail Address:

A&P 1 (Sessions: Terms to Heart)

When describing anatomical terms the patient is always referred to being in the    position, which means standing erect, arms to the side and facing out.  The front surface of the body is termed plane. The back of the body is termed .  The line that separates the body into left and right is the .  The line dissects the collar bone.   A plane that separated the body into anterior and posterior is the line.  If the lateral plane is more anterior it is termed axillary.  If the lateral plane is more posterior it is termed axillary.  Midclavicular is on the anterior side but its counterpart on the posterior side is termed . A line that cuts across the body from left to right is termed .

When using direction terms is away from the midline.  Adduction is an example of movement.  Superior or toward the head/top is also referred to as .  Inferior or toward the bottom is also referred to as .  When compared to the elbow the wrist is .  When compared to the elbow the shoulder is . The surface of the hand/palm is termed .  The sole of the foot is termed .  When “looking up at the sky” the neck/head is .  When “looking down at your feet” the neck is .

When a person is lying on their back they are in a position.  When they are lying on their anterior surface they are in a position.  When you raise the body as a unit at the feet it is the position.  When you only raise the feet 8 to 10 inches it is the position.  When you flex your hips at 45 degree angle it is the position. When you raise the head only 15 to 30 degrees it is the position.  When you are prone with one hip flexed it is the position.

We have two divisions of the skeletal system; they are and .  We have five traditional body cavities which are: , , , , and .

We have three types of muscle tissues.  Involuntary is also referred to as muscle.  Examples of involuntary muscle are the (2 words) and system.  Striated muscle can also be termed muscle and is responsible for movement.  muscle is only found in the heart and has the ability to create its own electrical impulse know as .

A neuron consists of three parts; (2 words), , and .  The space between two nerves is the .  Some nerves have a protective cover termed a sheath.  are responsible in receiving impulses into the cell body.  The distributes and released neurotransmitters from the cell. 

The organ systems are: , , , , , , , , , , and .

The system is the largest system in the body and regulates body ; defense against ; and prevents .  We have two layers of skin (not counting the fat layer) which are the and .  The contains hair, nails, glands, veins, arteries (the good stuff).   We have (#) types of skin glands.  glands help control body temperature.  glands are located on the armpits and groin.  glands are in the ear and make ear wax.  glands produce milk.  glands lubricate the hair.

The skeletal system has two divisions;  and bones.  The human body has on average (#) bones.

A typical vertebral bone consists of;

·        process with goes posterior to the vertebral body. 

·        process with goes in a 45 degree lateral angle from the vertebral body.

·        of the vertebral bone supports most of the body weight.

·        Vertebral houses the spinal cord.

·        foramen allows the nerves to leave the spine laterally.


The axis of the spine is C (#).  The atlas of the spine is C (#).  C2 has a notch (den) which is termed the process.

We have 12 vertebral bones

We have 5 vertebral bones

We have 4 vertebral bones

We have 7 vertebral bones

We have 5 vertebral bones

The first (#) pairs of ribs are termed ribs

The last   (#) pairs of ribs are termed ribs

The last two pairs of ribs are termed ribs.

The upper extremity bones are the:

, , , , , , , and .

The proximal part of the femur has the head and the lesser and greater .

In the lower leg (Shin) we have the bone which supports most of the weight.  The bone is more posterior and .  The foot contains the bone which is the heel region along with (group of bones), (group of bones).  The is the ankle bone which articulates the body to the foot.

Three major classifications of joints: , , and .

joints allow little or no movement (skull sutures, between radius and ulna, teeth socket)

joints will allow a little motion. (rib cage cartilage)

joints have a sac are the most common joint in the human body

synovial joint is the thumb.

synovial joint is the elbow.

synovial joint is the hip.

synovial joint is the neck and allows for diagonal movement.

synovial joint is the spine

synovial joint is the head of the radius and allows supination and pronation.

Stimulating the biceps will result in movement

Stimulating the triceps will result in movement

When you dislocate a shoulder and are holding the arm to the body it is a movement.

When you dislocate a shoulder and hold the arm away from the body it is a movement.

Moving your arms in large circles is called movement.

Turning your palm face down is termed movement.

Turning your palm face up is termed movement.

In class we wanted to focus on just a few muscles.  This section is dedicated to them.

Start at the ear and goes to the manubrium. 

Upper arm and wraps around the shoulder.

Lateral upper torso which wraps just below the armpits to the back.

Lateral and transverse to the belly button.  Around the region of the love handles.

  Mid-abdominal muscle.  I used to have a 6 pack.

Under the breast tissue.


Big butt

The nervous system has two main divisions – the which include the brain, brain stem, and spine.  The other division is the nervous system which consists of the (3 words) which helps maintain homeostasis, Somatic which is motor nerves, and the which sends impulses to the brain.

The brain stem contains the , , and .  The is responsible to maintain vital signs.  The help control breathing and sleeping state.  The is the smallest region of the brain stem.  The contains the thalamus and .  The influences mood and strong emotion.  The is active sexual activity, emotion, and regulation.  The is considered the to the cerebrum. is the largest portion of the brain and is divided into left and right .

Lobes of brains:

·        lobe is associated with motor and higher intelligence.

·        lobe is the primary sensory lobe.

·        lobe is vision

·        lobe is hearing

The fluid of blood is .  The formed elements of blood are , , and .

The ovaries produce and hormones.  The testes produce hormone.  The promotes development of immune system cells. The B cells produce insulin.

The is the term given to the sac around the heart.  Valves within the heart located between the atria and ventricle are termed valves.  These valves are the on the right and the on the left. The valves leaving the ventricles are valves.  These valves are the on the left and on the right.  The heart has two main branches of the coronary arteries. The right coronary artery supplies blood to the (2 words) and (2 words).  The left coronary artery supply blood to the , , and .   The left coronary artery also has a branch called the which supplies blood to the posterior heart.

The heart is made up of two types of cells.  The ones that conduct impulses are cells and the cells that provide movement are termed cells.  The conduction system starts with the node then moves throughout the atrium’s called the paths and the paths.  The base of the AV node is the of His.  From there we go to the left and right branches and ends at the fibers. 

The term refers to the chest area.

Peripheral Circulation:  Blood vessels are an example of muscle.   are the most elastic of all vessels and handle the greatest pressure exerted from the heart.  As we trace a drop of blood through the 5 common vessel types we start with the arteries, then the , to the which are under a neutral pressure, then to the and finally to the veins.   have valves in them to prevent back flow.  As a general rule all flow away the heart and all return blood to the heart.  Also as a general rule all carry blood and all carry deoxygenated blood.  The exceptions to these rules are the arteries and veins.  The coronary arteries receive their blood flow during the phase of contraction. 

Respiratory System:  is a basic element needed for normal cell metabolism.  (2 words) is a major waste product of this process.    The respiratory system is divided into the and airway.  The opening is the dividing point of the upper and lower airways.  We have three pharynx; , , and .  The is responsible to , and air. The nasopharynx contain cartilage protrusions called which help more air while traveling through the nose. The left and right nares are separated by the nasal . The tube runs from the nose to the ear.  The is located behind the mouth. The   is the tissue which hangs down from the roof of the mouth. The is where you gurgle mouthwash. 

The is where speech/sound production is located.  The only complete cartilage ring of the larynx is the cartilage. The membrane is located just above the cricoid cartilage and is where a needle cricothyroidostemy is done.  The glottic opening contains the white vocal cords referred to as cords.

When tracing a drop of air from the larynx it will travel next to the which has “C” shaped cartilage rings.  In the lungs we have a total of (#) lobes on the left and (#) lobes on the right.  The are the smallest component of the respiratory system.  These sacs contain a liquid called which lubricates the tissue.  The lungs are surrounded by tissue membrane and the thoracic cavity is coated with tissue membrane.  The two tissues form the space. 

The system provides the body with water, electrolyte and nutrients.  The stomach has two sphincters.  The proximal sphincter is termed and the distal sphincter is termed The stomach contains acid which is stimulated to be released into the stomach by gastrin.  The main function of the small intestine is absorption of and electrolytes (the good stuff). 

The liver produces which emulsifies fat.  The bladder holds a reserve of bile for digestion.

The large intestine is also termed the .  The main purpose of the large intestine is to synthesize vitamin K and absorb .  From the cecum we travel to the colon to the hepatic flexure then the colon to the spleenic flexure to the colon to the “S” shape colon to the rectum and anus.  The anus has (#) sphincters; internal sphincter is and the external sphincter is .

The urinary system is the main system in the body that regulates The kidney is slightly lower than the other side.  The , , and make up the remaining parts to the urinary system.

Male reproduction: The testes produce sperm and .  The (2 words) joins the epididymis and continues to the prostate where the tube is termed the urethra.   The body of the penis is termed the and the tip is the .  The sac that holds the testicles is the .

Female reproduction starts with the majora and minora.  The is anterior to the urethra.  The opening to the vagina is to the urethra.  The vagina is termed the canal.  The head of the vagina is the . The is the womb. The tubes extend to the ovaries.  The tissue region between the anus and vagina is the .

The white part of the eye is termed and the clear part over the pupil is the .  The color (brown or blue most common) is the .  The black hole is the .  The anterior chamber of the eye contains humor.  The posterior chamber contains a jelly like fluid called humor.  The humor is always being produced.  The lines the posterior chamber of the eye.    presents when pressure build up takes place in the eye.  Myopia means sided and means sided.  The duct connect the eye and nose together.  The gland produces tears.  The outer part of the eye and under the eye lids are covered with . The retina has rods and see color and rods see black and white.

The ear is divided into (#) regions.  Outer, middle and inner ear.  The (2 words) separated the outer (ear canal) and middle ear.  The smallest bones in the body are the bones which are the; , , and These bones relay vibrations from the ear drum to the inner ear.  The superior ear lobe is termed the .  The inferior ear lobe is termed the The is responsible for deciphering sounds.   The 3  canals are responsible for equilibrium. 

The front four teeth (4 upper and 4 lower) are called central and lateral .  The are called the eye/fang teeth.  The back teeth are termed .

Copyright © 2017 Emergency Medical Training Services